4d printing

What is 4D Printing?

4D printing is also known as 4D bio printing, shape morphing technology and active origami. The technique and principle of 4D printing is just same as 3d printing. Unlike 3d printing where materials in successive layers are used to print three dimensional objects, in fourth dimensional printing works on dimension transformation over the time. It is a type of programmable matter such as Catoms. The good thing about fourth dimensional printing is that printed product adapt themselves to the environment and temperature and surface.

4D Printing Applications

Even the thought the early and main purpose of 4D printing is enhancing bio medical science and getting analysis and results in high material and resolution. Still there are many application that we are likely to see in future.

·         Smart Materials

·         Static Structure

·         Dynamic Intelligent Structure

·         Mechanism of Interaction

·         Multi material 3d Printer

·         Electrical Material

·         Magnetic Intelligence Material

·         Commerce Purpose

·         Transportation

How 4D Printing Works

4D printing can focus with most computer software which creates two objects in parallel to one stage.  The software doesn't have any limitation of shapes or sizes it might create, and also the amount are limitless.  This enables many different industries to innovate new products including aerospace, electronic etc., for many kinds use cases such as manufacturing. The industry itself sounds very happy with this process so far!

Printing Techniques

Generally 4D printing is based on stereolithography.

Fiber Architecture

This form of 4D printing uses the strings of fibers to create objects in different shapes and sizes. They can be designed in both micro and macro scale.

Difference Between 3D and 4D printing

·         3D printing does not have dynamic shape changing feature while 4D printing allow user to change shape, color, function etc.

·         3D printing is based on thermoplastics while 4D printing uses smart materials such as Shape Memory Alloys and Shape Memory Polymers

·         Unlike 3D printing, 4D printing does not rely on metals and alloys as it is heavily depend upon self-assembled materials.

·         3D printing requires biomaterials and gels while 4D printing uses hydrophilic polymers and biomaterials.

·         Both 3D Printer and 4D printer uses stereolithography printing technique.

·         4D printing uses multi material 3d printers unlike 3D printing which uses fused deposition modeling

·         The costing of 4D printing is very high when compared to 3D printing.